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An early forerunner of ISIS

Present-day ISIS (Da'ish) is remarkably similar to the Azraqites, a much earlier fundamentalist movement in Islam that existed at the end of the seventh century. It is described by W. Montgomery Watt in his book Islamic Philosophy and Theology... The Azraqites were in revolt agains the ruling dynasty, the Umayyads, based in Damascus, whom they regarded as illegitimate and irreligious.

The members of their band were the true Muslims; their house alone was 'the camp of Islam' … where Islam was truly observed. Those who 'sat still' at home and did not make the hijra or 'migration' to their camp were sinners and unbelievers, outside the community of Islam. … By thus excluding from the Islamic community even those Muslims who did not agree with them in every detail, they made it lawful to kill such persons and also their wives and children; for according to an old Arab usage there was no wrong in killing someone not a member of one's tribe or an allied tribe… This puritanical theology became a justification for sheer terrorism and the Azraqites became noted and feared for their widespread massacres.

And the parallel goes even further in view of ISIS's practice of getting Western recruits to execute Western hostages.

It is said that when a man went to them and said he wanted to join their band he was given a prisoner to kill; if, as is likely, it was a prisoner from the man's tribe, the killing would break his ties with his tribe and attach him irrevocably to the Azraqites.

They were finally defeated in 697.

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